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Sam Dicker papers

 Collection — Box: 1
Identifier: 118.8353
The Sam Dicker papers are a collection of graph paper drafts of characters and objects, printed source code, a manual, and other ephemera related to Williams Electronics’ Defender arcade game, programmed by Sam Dicker.

The Sam Dicker papers are arranged in one series. The collection is housed in one archival flat document box.


  • 1980 - 1983



The materials in this collection are in English.

Conditions Governing Access

Due to the nature of the printed source code on perforated, connected printer paper, reference scans of these pages may only be available at the discretion of the library staff. Please see The Strong’s Digital Games Files Access Policy here.

Conditions Governing Use

This collection is open for research use by staff of The Strong and by users of its library and archives. Though the donor has not transferred intellectual property rights (including, but not limited to any copyright, trademark, and associated rights therein) to The Strong, he has given permission for The Strong to make copies in all media for museum, educational, and research purposes.


1.5 Linear Feet (1 archival flat box)


The Sam Dicker papers are a compilation of graphics drafts, source code, a printed manual, and other ephemera related to the Williams Electronics’ arcade game Defender.

Biographical Note

Sam Dicker is an American software engineer with more than 40 years of experience in interactive multimedia products.

From 1980 to 1983, Dicker worked at Williams Electronics as a Lead Game Programmer, where he programmed the arcade games Defender (1981) and Sinistar (1983). He later worked for Amiga, Apple Computer, Crystal Dynamics, Creative Labs, and several other game- and audio-related companies. As of March 2021, Dicker is a Senior Audio Software Engineer at Apple.

System of Arrangement

Series I: Williams Electronics, 1980-1983

Custodial History

The Sam Dicker papers were donated to The Strong in February 2021 as a gift of Sam Dicker. The papers were accessioned by The Strong under Object ID 118.8353. The papers were received from Dicker in one box.

Processed by

Julia Novakovic, March 2021


Finding Aid to the Sam Dicker Papers, 1980-1983
Julia Novakovic
5 March 2021
Description rules
Language of description

Repository Details

Part of the Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play at The Strong Repository

The Strong
One Manhattan Square
Rochester NY 14607 USA
585.423.1886 (Fax)